Batteries are still widely studied with multitudes of publications every week relating to the increasing charge rate for electrical vehicles and increasing energy density suppressing cobalt (using graphene, silicon,..). As regards, lithium-ion batteries, Europe is moving to establish a lithium-ion battery (LIB) industry with European and Asian players, facing competition from the US and Asia. Silicon doped anodes are gradually appearing on the battery cell market, offering an energy density of 330 Wh/kg. In parallel, some producers are broadening their technological portfolio to focus on Na-ion batteries. We continue to observe that technology evolution is driven by safety aspects and critical materials (e.g., Tesla has decided to move towards lithium-iron-phosphate-based battery).
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